Scooter Hack Threat

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An investigation by researchers at Zimperium® found a security flaw in the Xiaomi M365 electric scooter (the same model that is used by ridesharing companies) which could allow hackers to take control of the scooter’s acceleration and braking.

Xiaomi M365

The Xiaomi M365 is a folding, lightweight, stand-on ‘smart’ scooter with an electric motor that retails online for around £300 to £400. It is battery-powered, with a maximum speed of 15 mph, and features a “Smart App” that can track a user’s cycling habits, and riding speed, as well as the battery life, and more.

What Security Flaw?

The security flaw identified by the Zimperium® researchers is that the ‘smart’ scooter has a Bluetooth connection so that users can interact with the scooter’s features e.g. its Anti-Theft System or to update the scooter’s firmware, via an app. Each scooter is protected by a password, but the researchers discovered that the password is only needed for validation and authentication by the app, but commands can still be executed to the actual scooter without the password.

The researchers found that they could use the Bluetooth connection as a way in.  Using this kind of hack, it is estimated that an attacker only needs to be within 100 meters of the scooter to be able to launch a denial-of-service attack via Bluetooth which could enable them to install malicious firmware.  This firmware could be used by the attacker to take control of the scooter’s acceleration and braking capacities. This could mean that the rider could be in danger if an attacker chose to suddenly and remotely cause the scooter to brake or accelerate without warning.  Also, the researchers found that they could use this kind of attack to lock a scooter by using its anti-theft feature without authentication or the user’s consent.

Told The Company

The researchers made a video of their findings as proof, contacted Xiaomi and informed the company about the nature of the security flaw. It has been reported that Xiaomi confirmed that it is a known issue internally, but that no announcement has been made yet about a fix.  The researchers at Zimperium® have stated online that the scooter’s security can’t be fixed by the user and still needs to be updated by Xiaomi or any 3rd parties they work with.

Suggestion From The Researchers

The researchers have suggested that, in the absence of a fix to date, users can stop attackers from connecting to the scooter remotely by using Xiaomi’s app from their mobile before riding and connecting to the scooter.  Once the user’s mobile is connected and kept connected to the scooter an attacker can’t remotely flash malicious firmware or lock the scooter.

What Does This Mean For Your Business?

This is another example of how smart products/IoT products of all kinds can be vulnerable to attack via their Bluetooth or Internet connections, and particularly where there are password issues.  Usually, the risk comes from smart products from the same manufacturer all being given the same default password which the user doesn’t change.  In this case, the password works with the app, but in this case it appears as though the password isn’t being used properly to protect the product itself.

There have been many examples to date of smart products being vulnerable to attack.  For example, back in November 2017, German Telecoms regulator the Federal Network Agency banned the sale of smartwatches to children and asked parents to destroy any that they already have over fears that they could be hacked, and children could be spied-upon.  Also, back in 2016, cyber-criminals were able to take over many thousands of household IoT devices (white goods, CCTV cameras and printers), and use them together as a botnet to launch an online DDoS attack (Mirai) on the DNS service ‘Dyn’ with global consequences i.e. putting Twitter, Spotify, and Reddit temporarily out of action.

Manufacturers of smart products clearly need to take great care in the R&D process to make sure that the online security aspects have been thoroughly examined. Any company deploying IoT devices in any environment should also require the supply chain to provide evidence of adherence to a well-written set of procurement guidelines that relate to specific and measurable criteria.  In the mobile ecosystem and in adjacent industries, for example, the GSMA provides guidelines to help with IoT security.

As buyers of smart products, making sure that we change default passwords, and making sure that we stay up to date with any patches and fixes for smart products can be ways to reduce some of the risks.   Businesses may also want to conduct an audit and risk assessment for known IoT devices that are used in the business.

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